Category Archives: Technology



What is A BIND Birthday Attack on DNS and How To Eliminate This Threat?

We live in a world where troubles are never ending. They keep coming one after the other. Same goes for the world of computers. Viruses, bugs, trojan horses and other such disastrous elements keep showing up time and again. DNS (Domain name server) attacks have been such elements which have kept the users daunting for quite some time now. Engineers keep researching about various cache poisoning methods and try to come up with better ways to defend against these kinds of attacks and ensure proper DNS protection. One such attack is the BIND (Berkeley Internet Name Domain) birthday attack. The nomenclature has got a lot to do with the Birthday paradox which states that if there are 23 people in a room, the chances of two of them sharing the same birth date is 50-50. What has this paradox got to do with the BIND attack? Well, let’s make the concept of this BIND birthday attack clear:

The Mechanism:

When your computer gets connected to the internet, a local DNS server is assigned to you. For every symbol entered by you, your system contacts the local server for resolution. The returned value is then stored in a local cache. If not resolved properly, the request is then transferred to another DNS server which has more information. It forms a chain when there are continuous requests to different servers and is hence called recursive. The final result looks like it was returned by the local DNS server to your computer. In the early 2000s, the information spread that BIND allowed false DNS server resolutions, which came to be known as cache poisoning. This attack takes place when the cache of the local DNS server is poisoned with false resolutions and then following the chain, the client cache is poisoned as well.

So, how does the DNS server is made to accept false resolutions? It’s a bit tricky yet simple. Let me explain how. The attacker makes a name request to the victim server. The request is intentionally set in a way so as to yield a recursive solution. The attacker then feeds the false information to the recursive request too! The attack becomes successful due to some loopholes in the DNS and BIND. Both of them share implicit trust with each other, which means that there is no authentication required over the implementation of DNS by BIND.

Moreover, an older version of BIND still permits multiple simultaneous requests for the same name! The attacker then chooses the 16-bit Identifier (It is the only thing that connects a request to its reply) and guesses it to have accepted a false response. N recursive requests and N replies with random identifiers are then sent by the attacker. When this N reaches to about 700, the Birthday Paradox prevails, which means that the probability of one of the requests by the victim server matching one of the generated responses will be high.

How To Defend Against It?

There can be various situations you have to face as a BIND user. For example, there can be instances where your users are returned false information or your server gets hijacked. Let’s categorically look at what different people do to defend against this kind of attacks:

  • As a Domain owner: It is sometimes beyond your control to defend your server against those spoofing your name for a fake nameserver. You can use SSL for authentication to your browsers. However, detection of such attacks would still be difficult. Also, there can be people trying to slow your server down, which may put up a negative impact before your visitors.
  • Nameserver Admin: Updating BIND to the latest version would prove to be the best method for you. As already mentioned, in the older versions, BIND still permits multiple requests under the same name which is not the case with the newer versions. You can also choose to disable the requests coming from the outside world which would yield a recursive result.
  • As an End user: If your company doesn’t upgrade BIND, you can try running your own recursive resolver. Stick to the basic security features such as antiviruses and firewalls to prevent your computer from any alien malware.
  • As a Vendor: You can fix the problem yourself by limiting the number of requests under the same name to one. If you have already updated it to the latest version, it’s fine enough.

Moreover, you should regularly inspect your DNS server as these attacks come uninvited. Security should be the most basic priority for any website, as cyber-crime has reached new levels. Take care of your DNS server and prevent it from any further BIND birthday attacks!


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ipam software


5 Reasons Why You Need an IP Address Management Strategy in 2017?

IP addresses have become an integral part of any corporate network. Large and small companies are consuming them faster with more applications and devices than ever before. Overlooking the cardinal potency of getting a grip on IP addresses can prove disastrous.

What Is IP Address Management?

The most crucial resources that need managing on any network are IP addresses. Each and every application and device which is networked from e-mail and Web connectivity depends on IP and requires address assignment. This, in turn, presents a huge challenge, but it is molding into an even bigger challenge as new services like VoIP and mobile networks create an increase in IP address assignment needs, which in turn requires more robust allocation, classification, and tracking of addresses. This is popularly known as IP address management (IPAM).

Advantages Of Having An IPAM

1. Security- It becomes easier to detect breaches inside the infrastructure when network and machine have, access to ipam software.

  • The IPAM data consists of information like the IP addresses in use, information of devices each IP is assigned to, the time of assignment and to whom each IP was assigned.
  • This information is extremely helpful in identifying patterns that show security breaches or other abuses of the network.
  • Prevention of such security issues is of extreme importance in order to maintain data integrity and the health of the network and systems.

2. Compliance- Compliance in another helpful factor in the case of IPAM. Let’s have a look how:

  • Certain internal policies can be easily implemented using IPAM data and a network access control (NAC) system.
  • For example, before an access is given to your network, the NAC, with help from IPAM data, can determine if the antivirus software is up to date, thus potentially preventing any intrusion due to the antivirus software being behind on updates.

3. Network Health- Besides the need for security and compliance, IPAM also helps in supplying with information on the condition of the network and all of the IP addresses which are being used at a particular time.

  • Information on whether an IP is static, dynamic, reserved, or in another status, serves as an example for the above.
  • Additionally, MAC addresses, DHCP leases, etc can also be collected and viewed which helps us get a detailed report on what is happening on the network.

4. Network Conflict- Another function of IPAM is to prevent conflicts between networks.

  • Although it cannot prevent every cause of these conflicts, IPAM can prevent many network issues that occur from IP addressing problems.
  • These types of conflicts can result in the elimination of connectivity to central servers.
  • Also, effective management solutions will also integrate IT and network engineering operations.
  • IPAM is a very time-consuming task when the process is not centralized.
  • A comprehensive approach, effective strategies can boost productivity and decrease costs.

5. Return on Investment: From a business point of view, an effective IP Address Management strategy shows a significant return on investment in several different areas. It prevents network downtime and mitigates potential risks. An up-to-date IPAM strategy also improves compliance readiness. Depending on the organization, there is a chance that some sort of regulatory compliance that must be met. A comprehensive strategy ensures that non-compliance is not a potential hazard to the services of the company.

Thus this shows the cardinal importance of IP address management software in networking. This leads to the formation of strategies to prevent IP address intrusions into the system. Therefore IPAM is extremely crucial and necessary in every field of technology

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indoor navigation


How Integrating Indoor Navigation With Your Business Can Do Wonders?

Most of us can’t stop talking about the benefits of indoor navigation and how it is going to make life much easier for all of us. It’s definitely going to change the way we navigate and make it almost impossible for anyone to lose their way anymore however directionally impaired they are.

Yes, indoor navigation is definitely a boon to the end users.

But, it is also useful to another important group of people other than just the end users. Integrating indoor navigation systems can do wonders for your business.

So, how exactly does it help businesses?

Let’s imagine a gang of girls in the age group of 16-25 entering a mall. As soon as they enter, they get alerts on their smart phones about the sale going on in the second floor of the mall in a particular store. The chances of these girls heading directly to that store to check out the sale are high. The chances of them making a purchase are also extremely high.

By finding the right audience and targeted marketing, businesses will definitely be able to increase their sales. By providing coupons and offers that can directly be availed by showing their smart phones, more customers can be attracted.

Supermarkets with indoor navigation can guide the customers to the aisles containing the product they’re looking for. Since it makes it easier to identify the products, sales will increase as people might not give on a product just because it is difficult to find in a large store with multiple aisles.

Event planners can create indoor maps for their major events and help people move about and check out the various stalls or booths they might be interested in. This again separates them from the others and gives them an edge over their competitors.

In the case of manufacturing industries and other shop floors, using indoor navigation systems can take monitoring to the next level. Also, indoor navigation can increase security within a building by restricting entry into certain areas.

The data collected using the indoor navigation systems can also be used to perform analytics on and improve businesses. For example, if a particular store seems to have more crowd than the others especially in a particular section, analysis can be done to see why the particular section is doing better than others. Decisions about where to place each item on the store can be made with the results of these analyses and can be used to improve business.

Smart supermarkets, smart shopping, etc is the future that we are all moving towards. Indoor navigation will definitely play a major role in all these areas. By helping to do targeted advertising, it is already helping businesses increase their sales in unbelievable ways. Making use of this emerging technology can do wonders to your business!

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